Contrasting Conventional with Multi-Level Modeling Approaches to Meta-Analysis: Expectation Consistency in U.K. Woodland Recreation Values

Ian J. Bateman and Andrew P. Jones


The paper presents a variety of meta analysis models of woodland recreation benefit estimates, contrasting conventionally estimated models with those provided by novel, multi-level modeling (MLM) techniques (Goldstein 1995). Our conventional models suggest that studies carried out by certain authors are associated with unusually large residuals within our meta-analysis. However, the MLMapproach explicitly incorporates the hierarchical nature of meta-analysis data, with estimates nested within study sites and authors. These residuals are not a significant determinant upon values, suggesting that, at least in this aspect, estimates may be more robust than indicated by less sophisticated models. (JELQ26)