Protected Area Effectiveness in European Russia: A Postmatching Panel Data Analysis

Kelly J. Wendland, Matthias Baumann, David J. Lewis, Anika Sieber and Volker C. Radeloff


We estimate the impact of strict and multiple-use protected areas on forest disturbance in European Russia between 1985 and 2010. We construct a spatial panel dataset that includes five periods of change. We match protected areas to control observations and compare coefficients from fixed-versus random-effects models. We find that protected areas have few statistically significant impacts on disturbance, with little difference across parks closer to or farther from major cities or roads. Random-effects estimates differ qualitatively and quantitatively from those of fixed effects in our study, serving as a cautionary note for evaluations where time-invariant unobservables are important. (JEL C14, Q23)