Gendered Perceptions of Land Ownership and Agricultural Decision-making in Ecuador: Who Are the Farm Managers?

Jennifer Twyman, Pilar Useche and Carmen Diana Deere


This paper challenges standard analyses of gender differences in agriculture, which typically focus on the sex of household heads or landholders, by considering who makes decisions on land owned by married women. We show that joint ownership and joint decision-making by couples is common in Ecuador but would be overlooked in studies focusing on only one farm manager. We also show that there are gender differences in perceptions about land ownership and agricultural decision-making, with men reporting lower levels of women’s participation compared to their wives’ report. Moreover, perceptions about the factors affecting women’s participation in agricultural decision-making also differ. (JEL D63, Q15)