The Value of Naturalness of Urban Green Spaces: Evidence from a Discrete Choice Experiment

Julia Bronnmann, Veronika Liebelt, Fabian Marder, Jasper Meya and Martin Quaas


The range of benefits for humans and biodiversity conservation provided by urban green spaces (UGSs) receives substantial attention in relation to urban planning and management. However, little is known about the value of nature in UGSs. We developed a graphical measurement scale for the naturalness of UGS, with five steps between largely sealed and largely wilderness, which was embedded in an online survey and a discrete choice experiment. Using mixed logit models, we find that German citizens have a mean willingness to pay of €20.25 per month for an increase in the naturalness of the closest UGS by one step.

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