Open Access

How Differently Do Farms Respond to Agri-environmental Policies? A Probabilistic Machine-Learning Approach

Silvia Coderoni, Roberto Esposti and Alessandro Varacca


This study evaluates to what extent farmers respond heterogeneously to the agri-environmental policies implemented within the European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Our identification and estimation strategy combines a theory-driven research design formalizing all possible sources of heterogeneity with a Bayesian additive regression trees algorithm. Results from a 2015-2018 panel of Italian farms show that the responsiveness to these policies may differ substantially across farms and farm groups. This suggests room for improvement in the implementation of these policies. We also argue that the specific features of the CAP call for a careful implementation of these empirical techniques.

KeywordsJEL Classification

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