The Demand for Voluntary Carbon Dioxide Removal

Experimental Evidence from an Afforestation Project in Germany

Lara Bartels, Martin Kesternich and Andreas Löschel


This study explores the individual willingness to pay (WTP) for carbon removal through afforestation as a complementary climate change mitigation strategy. Using a framed-field experiment, we assess the impact of local co-benefits and geographic location on WTP. We find that participants strongly favor voluntary climate change mitigation through forestry-based removal. Emphasizing co-benefits doesn’t significantly alter WTP in our municipal tree-planting project. A follow-up survey indicates a high awareness of co-benefits, suggesting that unobserved priors may influence WTP results. Trust levels are higher for forestry-based removal than for established market-based carbon avoidance, suggesting preferences for understandable mitigation measures with tangible co-benefits.