Table 1

Attributes and Their Levels

Level of restorationThe level of restoration done in the restored areas, if any. More restoration involves active plantation of native species in addition to dune flattening and invasive grass removal. The latter two are also carried out in moderate restoration.1: No new restoration (status quo, only possible in status quo)
2: Moderate restoration
3: Full restoration
Size of all restored areas combinedThe total restored areas would be split up into 10 sites. This attribute shows the total size of these areas. Larger areas cost more to maintain.1: 0 acres (status quo, only possible in status quo)
2: 3,000 acres
3: 7,000 acres
4: 10,000 acres
5: 15,000 acres
RecreationType of recreational activities allowed. Fewer recreation activities allowed means only walking on wet sand is allowed, while more recreation involves all the current activities allowed (e.g., hiking, picnic, walking dog) and riding off-road vehicles.1: Fewer recreational activities
2: Same (status quo)
3: More recreational activities
Number of flooding daysNumber of days per year (usually in winter) the restored areas, or areas where restoration could be, are temporarily flooded on average. Full restoration may lead to more flooding due to flattened dunes.1: 2 days (status quo, only possible in status quo)
2: 5 days
3:10 days
4: 20 days
Added cost to householdTotal cost to household per year for the next 10 years in terms of increased taxes.1: $0 (status quo, only possible in status quo)
2: $10
3: $20
4: $50
5: $75
6: $100
7: $175
8: $250
9: $350