Balancing Tests and Mean Value of the Dependent Variable in Each Treatment Group

N = 128N = 267N = 126N = 141
Pecuniary motivations
  Increased gross margin0.4820.386*0.0850.4120.9090.3640.120
  Higher value0.1710.2160.3380.2520.1030.1820.509
  Technical difficulties0.5080.4690.4760.4680.7040.4710.745
Nonpecuniary selfish motivations
  Better life quality0.4870.4980.8460.5360.2870.4630.395
Nonpecuniary altruistic motivations
  Contribute to environment0.9760.9540.3080.9840.1090.927**0.011
  Already conform0.7130.6610.3270.6550.5240.6670.738
  Medium changes0.3590.3970.4720.3970.7370.3970.707
  Major changes0.1560.1540.9450.1590.8710.1490.822
Farm characteristics
  UAA (ha)157.623151.1690.545160.3080.344143.1050.130
  AES fertilizers0.5310.4940.4930.5000.8630.4890.615
  AES phytosanitary0.4300.4570.6100.381*0.0660.525**0.022
  AES land cover0.3050.3110.9010.3330.4710.2910.562
  AES grassland0.2190.2360.7040.2140.6030.2550.380
  AES linear0.0860.202***0.0040.278***<0.0010.1350.234
  AES organic0.0780.022***0.0090.0240.2490.0210.149
  AES other0.1330.1160.6340.1430.3740.0920.184
  Vine or arboriculture0.0320.0460.5010.0490.6100.0440.870
  Livestock farming0.2300.1890.3480.2380.2430.146**0.040
  Field crops0.4440.3980.3820.320**0.0110.4670.109
  Mixed farming0.2620.3440.1060.377*0.0840.3140.925
  Other agricultural production0.0320.0230.6190.0160.4210.0290.768
  • Note: AES, agri-environmental scheme; UAA, utilizable agricultural area.

  • a The p-value of the test that the mean values for both groups T = 1 and control are equal.

  • b The p-value of the test that the mean values for both groups T1 = 1 and T1 = 0 are equal.

  • c The p-value of the test that the mean values for both groups T2 = 1 and T2 = 0 are equal.

  • * p<0.1;

  • ** p< 0.05;

  • *** p< 0.01.