Table 2

Results for State Park Visitation Models

Log(Monthly Visits)Instagram Launch (1)Instagram Use (2)Difference-in-Differences (3)
Instagram launch (Oct. 2010)−0.042
Instagram sustained use (Apr. 2012)0.013−0.007
Instagram use × high-activity parks0.216***
Economic controlsYYY
Weather controlsYYY
Year fixed effectsYYY
Month fixed effectsYYY

Note: The panel model includes 44 parks in the Oregon state park system. Instagram launch = 1 for all observations after its launch in October 2010. Instagram use = 1 for all observations after April 2012 when Instagram images began being geotagged to Oregon state parks. The difference-in-differences approach separates parks into high Instagram activity and low Instagram activity. There are four high-activity parks: Smith Rock, Silver Falls, Oswald West, and Ecola. All specifications include the economic controls of gas prices, housing prices, unemployment rate, and population levels. Weather controls include mean monthly precipitation and a nonlinear function of daily weather in each month. The panel is unbalanced, as there are a few parks that are closed in winter and a few cases of missing monthly visitation data owing to random malfunctions of car counters. Robust standard errors are in parentheses. The full model results are in Appendix Table A4.

  • * p < 0.1;

  • ** p < 0.05;

  • *** p < 0.01.