Table 3

Results for Visitation Models Using Instagram Content and Engagement

Content (1)Content: High / Low (2)Content: High / Low + Engagement (90%) (3)Content: High / Low + Engagement (95%) (4)Content: High / Low + Engagement by Year (90%) (5)Content: High / Low + Engagement by Year (95%) (6)
Instagram launch−0.046−0.048−0.049−0.048−0.048−0.048
Content variable
No. geotags0.0002***
No. geotags high-activity parks0.0002***0.00009*0.00009*0.000080.00008
No. geotags low-activity parks0.00030.00050.00050.00040.0005
Engagement variable
Cumulative nos. 90th percentile (high-activity parks)0.00003***0.00003***
Cumulative nos. 90th percentile (low-activity parks)−0.0001−0.00006
Cumulative nos. 95th percentile (high-activity parks)0.00005***0.00006***
Cumulative nos. 90th percentile posts (low-activity parks)−0.0002−0.0002
Economic controlsYYYYYY
Weather controlsYYYYYY
Year fixed effectsYYYYYY
Month fixed effectsYYYYYY

Note: The panel model includes 44 parks in the Oregon state park system. Instgram launch = 1 for all observations after its launch in October 2010. There are four high-activity parks: Smith Rock, Silver Falls, Oswald West, and Ecola. Economic controls include gas prices, housing prices, unemployment rate, and population levels. The cumulative number of 90th and 95th posts (columns (3) and (4)) are designated by the likes received (135 and 209 likes) on the entire set of geotagged photos. The cumulative number of 90th and 95th by year (columns (5) and (6)) are designated by likes on set of geotags per year (online Appendix Table A3). Weather controls include mean monthly precipitation and a nonlinear function of daily weather in each month. The panel is unbalanced, as there are a few parks that are closed in winter and a few cases of missing monthly visitation data owing to random malfunctions of car counters. Robust standard errors are in parentheses. The full model results are in Appendix Table A5.

  • * p < 0.1;

  • ** p < 0.05;

  • *** p < 0.01.